Genocides: A World History by Norman A. Naimark, Chapter 8

So, aside from the discussion of the genocide in Darfur, which I will get to in a minute, this chapter was a basic summary of the 1990s genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia. Just a couple weeks ago, the Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladić was convicted of genocide for his role in leading the Siege of Sarajevo which left ten-thousand dead. I’m not sure if anything has happened with the Rwanda genocide, and I can check, but I’m pressed for time.

Shifting to Darfur. Arising out of increasingly violent disputes over land and resources between black pastoralists and Arab nomads, the Darfur genocide began in 2002 and is in certain ways, still happening. The main perpetrators were Janjaweed militias, who were paid by the Sudanese government, led by Omar Al-Bashir, to wipe out rebel groups found in the Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa tribes and the will of the non-combatants’ will to survive. The height of the killing occurred during 2003-2004. The Janjaweed often worked jointly with the Sudanese army in attacking villages, often striking in the mornings, kidnapping and raping women and girls, destroying infrastructure, poisoning water, mutilating and shooting women, men, and children. The Janjaweed militias often circled back to the villages they attacked to kill remaining survivors and were also present at refugee camps, located in other parts of Darfur, and its no mystery that they killed there as well.

The International Criminal Court (ICC) indicted Omar Al-Bashir in 2009 on charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and eventually genocide. Omar Al-Bashir was sited in South Africa, but the South African authorities did not arrest him because there’s this whole controversy between the ICC and the African Union about what I like to call “racial profiling”, because the ICC has opened twenty-five investigations and all of them have concerned a country in Africa. Some scholars say that the indictment of Omar Al-Bashir ignited this anger because he was a sitting head of state as opposed to private insurgency or opposition parties, which was the hope of the African states, and now current heads of state have their panties in a twist because they recognize their own mortality. As of 2016, the ICC opened an investigation into Georgia—the one in Eastern Europe—for the crimes committed in 2008 (I don’t know what happened but I will have a link for you to find out and tell me). And also, Burundi has left the ICC, however the ICC is still investigating crimes committed there, as well as South Africa. The ICC is also hosting preliminary investigations in Afghanistan, Colombia, Gabon, Guinea, Iraq, Nigeria, Palestine Ukraine, and the Registered Vessels of Comoros, Greece and Cambodia. Eight of those are not on the African continent, but we will have to see if the ICC decides to launch a formal investigation.

Some information on Mladić:

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-42080090

Some information on Rwanda (because I realized that I forgot to when I was discussing Gourevitch):

http://endgenocide.org/learn/past-genocides/the-rwandan-genocide/

Some information on Darfur:

http://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/darfur-genocide

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/darfur-the-most-successful-genocide-in-a-century_us_58fa0eb9e4b086ce58980fe3 (I hate the title, but it is a good article nonetheless)

for information on the ICC cases, go to https://www.icc-cpi.int/Pages/Main.aspx . There is a dropdown menu under “Situation and Cases” that will go over the ICC’s investigation and preliminary examinations in the various countries that I mentioned and some that I did not, including the Central African Republic, which I did my paper on! There’s also information on what the ICC is and other background things. CHECK IT OUT!

Information on the ICC and AU dispute:

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38826073

A scholarly article: file:///C:/Users/Nina%20Burges/Downloads/UMW/ICC/ContentServer.pdf

For information on the ICC investigation into Burundi

https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/11/09/icc-new-burundi-investigation

I will leaving information on the other ICC investigations to you, but I will have information on the ICC’s  investigation into the Central African Republic, which ICC has intervened twice, because that was my research topic this semester:

https://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2015/02/06/colonialism-coups-and-conflict-the-violence-in-the-central-african-republic/

http://news.trust.org//spotlight/Central-African-Republic-troubles/?tab=background

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